Environment is all about the things, which is present surrounding us.
What is environment?
Environment is all about the surrounding and the organism living in it. It refers to the living and non living organisms and their interaction among themselves as well as with the other organisms or entities of their surroundings.
Biotic and Abiotic Component of Environment
It is a natural habitat for an organism and it’s an obligatory requirement for any organism to survive, reproduce and growth. Each and every organism has their own requirements for their ability to survive and it is also important for any organism to give birth. Without a proper and healthy surrounding an organism can not expect to grow and meet their living.
Till the birth and death an organism needs are different and they need different – different non – living materials for their different purpose and their availability become vital for their overall needs. So the organism is always dependent on these non living things such as:- Energy, Radiation, Temperature and heat flow, Water, Atmospheric gases and wind, fire, Gravity, Topography, Soil, Geological substratum,
Energy is the first requirement for any living environment. The term “Energy cannot be created nor it can be destroyed” works for any surrounding system and form a stable environment. Radiation is also a form of energy which supports and initiates the first biotic component, Green plants. Green plants which are capable of synthesizing energy can only absorb a specific spectrum of light, which is VIBGYOR.
This biotic component further produces life supporting materials for other organisms. The main materials synthesized by plants are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, amino acids and vitamins; other materials are also produced by the plants.
Among the other components of it is “temperature and Heat Flow”, Temperature is an abiotic component and is required the most, without a proper temperature organisms cannot survive. Each and everything in this planet earth whether it is a element material or anything needs a proper temperature to form.
Temperature needs to be optimum for the surrounding it; so that the abiotic and biotic components can attain a proper shape, size and remain stable. Temperature is calculated in the form of heat and provides a condition for heat flow. Heat is an obligatory condition for any living organism to perform their metabolic activities and gain stability and become active for their purpose.
Water as we know is vital for any organism and without it we cannot think about any living organism. Water is required by all organisms to perform their vital activities such as metabolism and flow of nutrients within the body. Water is best solvent and it dissolves almost everything required by an organism.
Atmospheric gases and wind are also a major abiotic component of it. The atmospheric gases such as oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Nitrogen etc are the gaseous component among which Oxygen is vital for all aerobic living organisms as it is involved in respiration. Respiration helps organism for obtain energy by oxidation of carbohydrate.
Atmospheric gases along with some moisture (water vapour) make it dynamic and flow horizontally along the surface of earth up to a certain height. When it blows with a certain speed is called air. When it blows with 18km/hour or more it is called as wind.
Wind is also important for any environment as it helps to distribute heat and other gases symmetrically in the surrounding.
Fire is helpful to burn and remix the formed compounds and again bring it to its elemental form. When anything biotic burns it produce ash, gas, and energy.
Gravity is the top most requirements for the formation of a dynamic and stable environment we can’t thing about anything on this planet earth without gravity. Gravity is the only thing which helps to keep everything on this earth. Without it there is no imagination of atmosphere on this earth.
Gravity pulls everything including gases and helps to maintain a green house effect on planet earth. This green house gases don’t allow the radiation of earth to leave and keep the temperature of earth optimum for survival of living beings.
Topography is about the forms and features of land surfaces. It is related with the recording of three dimensional quality of the surface, and the identification of specific landforms; such as latitude, longitude and altitude. The land forms are vital for the formation of specific environment which also result in formation of way of interaction among organisms.
Soil is the basic thing which support, hold and provide a habitat for living organism. The quality of soil helps in percolation and avaibility of water, which is the life supporting material and soil also helps to maintain the diversity. Soil also acts as reservoir of minerals and other nutrients for growing plants and other micro-organisms.
Green plants help to keep all organisms survive on this planet. Green plants are only capable of harnessing energy from sunlight as solar radiation and transform it into chemical energy in the form of carbohydrate. For this plants absorb water and minerals from the soil and carbon dioxide from the environment and by absorbing photo synthetically active radiation it converts these inorganic abiotic substance to form an organic compound such as carbohydrate.
Thus the plants are called as autotrophs and are producers it forms the first trophic level. Plants are the ultimate source of energy for all other heterotrophic organisms.
Animals are called as heterotrophs and consume plants (herbivores) and other organism (carnivores) and the both (omnivores) and involve their role in an ecosystem.
Parasites are also present surrounding the organisms which do not kill but consume the energy of an organism.
Decomposers are the ultimate biotic component which help to main and recycle the mineral elements. Decomposers obtain their energy either by directly degrading or releasing enzyme inside a dead and decaying organism.
Decomposers decompose a detritus(dead and decaying body) and convert them into elemental forms, which is further absorbed by the plants.
All these factors and their inter-interaction helps to keep an atmosphere healthy and fit for survival of living beings on the earth.